Чтобы передать в косвенной речи общий вопрос (вопрос, на который можно ответить “да” или “нет”), используются слова whether/if. Они соответствуют частице “ли” в русском языке. Порядок слов при этом будет как в утверждении, а не как в вопросе.⇒ Вспомогательный глагол опускается. Также соблюдаются все правила согласования времён.
Прямая речь: Did Tom meet her?
Косвенная речь: I asked whether/if Tom met her.
⇒ В вопросах с вопросительными словами действуют те же правила: используем порядок слов, как в утверждении и опускаем вспомогательный глагол.
Прямая речь: Where does he live?
Косвенная речь: I asked you where he lived.
Когда вам нужно переписать или пересказать предложение в косвенной речи, вы обязательно столкнетесь с согласованием времен, т.е. вам нужно будет изменить время в предложении.Запомните!
⇒ Изменение времени происходит только в том случае, если вы используете такие выражения как he said, they told и т.д., т.е. используете глагол в прошедшем времени.
He said that he worked in the garden. –Он сказал, что работал в саду.
⇒ Глагол said стоит в прошедшем времени, значит, нам нужно поменять времена и других глаголов, согласно правилу, work меняется на worked.
Это происходит из-за того, что время сказанной реплики изменилось по отношению к настоящему моменту и вам нужно сделать его “более прошедшим”.
⇒Вот несколько основных правил согласования времен:
1) Present Simple - Past Simple:
“I wake up at 7 a.m.”, she says. She said that she woke up at 7 a.m.
2) Present Continuous - Past Continuous:
“We are cooking the dinner”, girls say. -> She said that they were cooking the dinner.
3) Present Perfect - Past Perfect:
“I have eaten some food”, a girl says. -> A girl said that she had eaten some food.
4) Past Continuous - Past Perfect Continuous:
“While I was washing the dishes, I heard a loud noise”- a woman admits. -> A woman admitted that while she had been washing the dishes, she had heard a loud noise.
5) Past Simple - Past Perfect:
“He took the money and ran”, a witness says. -> A witness said that he had taken the money and had run.
6) Future Simple - Future in the Past (would):
“The sun will rise tomorrow at 6.00.”, she says. -> She said that the sun would rise the next day at 6.00.
7) Модальные глаголы тоже меняются: can меняется на could, shall - на should, may - на might, have to - на had to, need - на needed. Глаголы should, might не меняются.
“I can drive a car” , he says. -> He said that he could drive a car.
8) Глагол must может, как меняться на had to, так и оставаться без изменений:
“We must go now”, they say. -> They said that they must/had to go straightaway.
Примеры использования Indirect speech
- I said you were wrong. -
- I asked him if that was all. -
- I said it was stupid. -
- I said I wanted to meet. -
- The police said it was an accident. -
- He said he couldn't wait. -
- You said it was going to be close. -
- You said you wanted to arrest him. -
- She said she liked to watch them. -
- I wondered if I could ask you something. -
- You said it would be funny. -
- He said he wouldn't wait. -
- He said it was perfect. -
- They said I was too young. -
- He said he'd missed you. -
- She didn't know if she would do it. -
- I said we would be late -
- John asked me whether I could go to a party on Saturday. -
- They said you wanted to see me. -
- She knew she had to hurry. -
- I said it wasn't important. -
- She asked what the time was. -
- I wondered if she had seen it. -
- I said you were beautiful. -
- He said it would be easy. -
- I didn't know whether you'd like it. -
- I said I wanted to travel. -
- They whispered that he was a judge or something. -
- I didn't know if he could hear me. -
- You said it would be my choice -
- He said he was going to do so. -
- You said you wanted to know. -
- Then he asked me if I wrote for any of the newspapers. -
- He said he was grateful -
- She said she wanted to learn. -
- She said it was important. -
- You said you wouldn't judge. -
- She knew what the word was. -
- Actually, I said she abandoned me -
- I said I had to discuss it -
- He wondered why she had called. -
- They said it would be temporary. -
- She said it was interesting! -
- They asked if I had seen you. -
- She said it wasn't safe. -
- I said you'd get your prize. -
- He said it was difficult -
- You said you weren't angry. -
- You said it was bad. -
- You said you'd be ready. -