Future perfect

Future perfect

Время Future Perfect (Будущее совершенное) используется, когда нужно описать действие, которое закончится к определенному моменту времени или до начала другого действия. Это время используется в английском языке не так часто.

Маркерами Future Perfect, которые указывают на необходимость использования этого времени, являются следующие слова:

  • by next week (month/year/…) – к следующей неделе (месяцу/году/…);

I will have started new project by next week. – Я начну новый проект к следующей неделе.

  • by then – к тому времени; by Saturday – к субботе и т.д.

She will have come back by Friday. – Она вернется к субботе.

Момент времени может выражаться с помощью конструкции before/when + Present Simple:

  • before he comes – прежде чем он придет;

I will have cleaned the room before he comes. – Я уберу комнату, прежде чем он придет.

  • when she returns – когда она вернется.

I will call you when she returns. – Я позвоню тебе, когда она вернется.

Схема образования Future Perfect

  • Positive sentence: субъект + will have + правильный глагол с окончанием -ed/третья форма неправильного глагола + остальные слова

She (субъект) will have done (3-я форма неправильного глагола) her home task by six o’clock. – Она сделает свою домашнюю работу к шести часам. = Действие завершится к определенному моменту – к шести часам.

  • Negative sentence: субъект + will have not/won’t + правильный глагол с окончанием -ed/третья форма неправильного глагола + остальные слова

He (субъект) will not have finished (правильный глагол + ed) his book before his dad comes. – Он не закончит свою книгу, прежде чем его отец придет. = Действие не завершится к моменту, когда произойдет другое действие.

  • Questions:

Общий вопрос

    • Will + субъект + have + правильный глагол с окончанием -ed/третья форма неправильного глагола + остальные слова

Will you (субъект) have talked (правильный глагол + ed) to her by tomorrow? – Ты поговоришь с ней к завтрашнему дню? = Вопрос о том, завершится ли действие к определенному моменту.

Специальный вопрос

    • Вопросительное слово (What, When, How и т.д.) + will + субъект + have + правильный глагол с окончанием -ed/третья форма неправильного глагола + остальные слова

What (вопросительное слово) will you have done (3-я форма неправильного глагола) by next week? – Что ты сделаешь к следующей неделе? = Вопрос о том, что произойдет к определенному моменту.

Примеры использования Future perfect

  • She'll have cleaned the house before we leave. -
  • They will not have been married by next year. -
  • The train will have arrived by ten in the morning. -
  • In October I will have lived in London for five years already. -
  • They'll have sold their car by next week. -
  • The rain will have stopped by tomorrow. -
  • Where will she have gone by tomorrow? -
  • I will have got this job by tomorrow. -
  • I will not have left my job by new year. -
  • She will not have gone on holidays by next week. -
  • How will she have finished her report by tomorrow? -
  • What will you have learnt by graduation? -
  • She will have finished her homework by two pm. -
  • The plane will have landed by noon. -
  • Will she have graduated from the university by spring? -
  • I will have bought a new car by next week. -
  • You will have received your promotion by next year. -
  • How will you have found new job by tomorrow? -
  • Mary will have cooked dinner before we come back. -
  • Will he have found a new job by next week? -
  • They won't have come back before you leave. -
  • She will have woken up by nine am. -
  • I'll have resigned by tomorrow. -
  • Will we have reached our destination by the morning? -
  • Who will have cooked lunch by noon? -
  • He won't have bought new shoes by his wedding. -
  • She'll have moved to a new flat by next week. -
  • The train won't have come by seven am. -
  • When will you have bought a new car? -
  • James will have finished his homework before his mother comes back. -
  • He won't have repaired his car before I come back. -
  • We'll have bought a country house by the summer. -
  • He will have got there by noon. -
  • The plane won't have landed by five pm. -
  • The bus will have come by seven o'clock. -
  • The train will have come by five o'clock. -
  • What will we have achieved by next year? -
  • Will he have cleaned the garden before his mum comes? -
  • My wife will not have cooked dinner before we leave. -
  • The bus won't have come by nine o'clock. -
  • Who will have passed all exams by February? -
  • You will have completed your report by Wednesday. -
  • How will we have reached the city by noon? -
  • I will not have finished this book by next week. -
  • Kate will have cleaned the house before her mother comes back. -
  • He won't have helped us before we come back. -
  • I will have graduated by next year. -
  • The patient will have recovered by next week. -
  • She will not have written another article before the teacher comes. -
  • They will not have finished the report by tomorrow morning. -